How to Calculate Soccer Possession

Possession in soccer as well as many other sports is indicated by the overall amount of time a team spends with the ball in its own possession. As a result, a statistics keeper is often required to keep track of how long each team has possession of the ball during a game. Often, the team with the greater time of possession comes out victorious, due to the longer amount of time it gets to spend attacking the defense.
Time of possession is defined in soccer as the total amount of time a team possesses a ball while on offense. The calculation of this number depends directly on the level of soccer and statistics keeping that goes into each game. For a recreational league game, time of possession may not even be calculated during the game. For higher level games, a manual clock will be placed next to the scoreboard that a scorekeeper will hit each time the ball changes possession. In professional soccer, an automated calculation is put in place to increase precision and accuracy.
For intermediate-level soccer games, possession is often calculated using a manual clock. During the game, the individual who is in charge of the game clock will also have a chess-style clock in front of him with two dials and a button above each dial. Once he sees the ball change possession, he will hit the button above the dial of the corresponding team, hitting between each dial during every change of possession. While this calculation will keep a fairly accurate time of possession, it is subject to human error, which is why it is not often used in professional matches.
In high-level soccer matches, time of possession is tabulated through an automated calculation that is based directly on the number of passes each team executes over the course of one game. Each pass is calculated and plugged directly into this equation. The total number of passes are then divided by the total number of passes in the game to get a percentage for the total. While this is not directly a time calculation, it ends up directly correlating to a team’s time of possession during a game.
Change of possession occurs in a soccer match when the ball is stolen by an opponent or the ball goes out of bounds, giving the ball to the other opponent. A change of possession is always performed in accordance with the official rules of the game. Despite this, the referees who enforce the game are prone to human error, resulting in missed calls and change of possession calls when they should not have occurred.

What Is the 5×5 Workout?

The 5×5 workout is a training system devised by football strength coach Bill Starr in the 1970s. Built around a small number of effective compound exercises that were performed three times a week, the 5×5 workout gained popularity because of its simplicity and effectiveness — 5×5 is also shorthand for five sets of five repetitions. This is both a feature of Starr¡¯s workout and also a set/rep scheme commonly associated with exercise programs designed to build size and strength.
The Original Starr program was published in his book, “The Strongest Shall Survive¡± and designed for bulking up football players. Each workout consists of three primary exercises: squats, power cleans and bench presses. These three exercises ensure that each major muscle in the body is challenged. When performing the 5×5 workout, additional exercises are not necessary although some users of the program add supplementary exercises such as biceps curls or core work to great effect. Each exercise is rotated so that one of the three is performed with maximal loads once per week while the other exercises are performed using sub maximal intensity. Essentially, this means there is a heavy day, a medium day and a light day for each exercise during training the week. The program is normally followed for six weeks before taking a break and then starting the program from the beginning again with heavier weights.
The 5×5 workout is progressive and all of the weights you should be lifting are planned well in advance, based on your one repetition maximum for each exercise. Once you know your 1RM for each exercise, you simply use the percentages detailed in the 5×5 workout. Each week, the loads are increased slightly to ensure a linear progression in both weight lifted and strength gained. This means that, regardless of your current level of strength, the program can be adapted to suit your individual requirements.
The Classic Starr program is built around squats, power cleans and bench press. Squats target your legs and hips, the power clean develops total-body explosive power, especially your hips and back while bench presses focus on your chest, shoulders and arms. Each of these muscle groups is very large and provides essential force in football and almost every other high intensity sport including basketball, martial arts and rugby. By focusing on these big muscle groups, smaller muscles such as your abs, calves, biceps and shoulders receive an indirect workout. The 5×5 routine is not a bodybuilding routine in the true sense of the word. Bodybuilders target muscles individually to ensure the development of an aesthetically pleasing physique. The 5×5 program is more about developing functional muscle mass rather than a balanced, attractive physique.
The 5×5 workout is very simple and focuses on a small handful of exercises. This reduced variety of exercise can lead to boredom and increases the risk of developing overuse injuries. To get the most from a five repetition set, you must lift weights that are heavy enough to be challenging. This means that you will be placing your body under a potentially injurious load. This is fine and, is in fact, necessary for intermediate or advanced lifters but is not such a good idea for beginners. Beginners are often still learning how to perform exercises with good technique — lifting heavy weights with poor technique can lead to short term and long term injuries.

What Sports Use the Hamstrings?

Any sport that depends on movement and strength uses the hamstrings to provide speed, quickness and power, but there are some sports where the impact of the hamstring muscle — located in the back of the thigh and running from the buttocks to just above the knee — is dramatic.
While all runners depend on their hamstrings, the sprinter’s success depends largely on the health and strength of this muscle. The hamstring is put to the test at the start of any sprint race because of the explosive strength that is needed to propel the runner out of the starting blocks. Then the athlete must accelerate and maintain that speed throughout the race. The sprinter will build strength in hamstring muscles with weight training and maintain flexibility through stretching exercises.
Football players need the ability to accelerate and reach top speed. They also need to change directions quickly, jump high to catch passes and absorb powerful hits, and then do it all over again. This means they are dependent on the health and viability of their hamstrings. For a running back to have success, he must accelerate past tacklers and get into the open field to make big plays. Former Detroit Lion Barry Sanders is recognized as one of the most dangerous running backs in football history because of his ability to break the big play. His overall leg strength allowed him to jump out of potential tackles and his powerful hamstrings gave him the ability to make long runs.
The freestyle stroke in swimming is dependent on the hamstring muscle with every kick. The hamstring muscle must be sufficiently warmed up when you get in the pool or you will put yourself at risk for cramps or hamstring pulls. Once you are warmed up and ready to train or race in an event, swimming itself helps to strengthen the hamstring muscle. Many athletes in other sports use swimming to help condition or strengthen hamstring muscles.
The explosive jumping that results in a basketball dunk, a blocked shot or coming up with a key rebound often is the result of hamstring strength. When basketball players leap off one foot, they are using an explosive movement powered by the hamstring; However, when a basketball player is using the two-foot jump — usually when the player is planted under the basket — the quads, glutes and back muscles take over. A player must build strength and flexibility in the hamstrings when executing the one-foot jump that is so common when the player is sprinting up the court toward the rim.

I Strain My Groin Every Time I Exercise

The groin area is composed of muscles known as the adductors. These consist of the adductor brevis, longus and magnus, in addition to the pectineus and gracilis. A groin strain takes place when the adductor muscle fibers tear from overtraining or exercising beyond your capacity. The end result is pain, stiffness and weakness on the inner thigh area. By taking precautionary and corrective measures, you can reduce the incidence of this type of injury.
Walking into an exercise session without a thorough warmup is a good way to injure your groin. When your muscles are tight, they are more apt to suffer a strain. The best way to avoid this is by doing dynamic stretches. The word “dynamic” means “in motion.” By doing a dynamic warmup before your workouts, you will acclimate your body to exercising movements and reduce the chance of injury. Include dynamic stretches like forward and sideways leg swings, reverse lunges, high knees, alternating toe touches and forward bends. Five minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient.
After doing a dynamic warmup, you may be tempted to jump right into your workout full steam ahead. Although you might be loosened up, this can still cause a groin injury. A better approach is to start out slow and gradually increase your intensity, especially with running and exercise that involves explosive movements. Treat this as a secondary warmup and spend five to 10 minutes gradually increasing your pace. This will also slowly raise your core body temperature and supply blood to your muscles.
Weak adductors have a greater chance of suffering a strain than strong ones. The act of adduction takes place when you move your thighs inward. By doing exercises that involve this movement, you will strengthen your adductors and decrease your odds of getting a strain. A ball squeeze is a good example of an adductor exercise. Perform this from a face-up position on the floor with a medicine ball. Pinch the ball between your thighs with your knees bent and feet flat on the floor, and squeeze it forcefully. Hold for five to 10 seconds, slowly release and repeat for the desired number of repetitions. This is called a static, or isometric, exercise which involves no continuous movement. You also have the option of doing a ball squeeze with your legs fully extended and the ball between your feet.
Stretching after your workouts is equally as important as stretching beforehand. When you are done exercising, your muscles are loose and in a lengthened state. By doing static stretching, you will keep your muscles and connective tissue flexible and reduce the risk of straining your groin with your next workout. Unlike dynamic stretches, static stretches are held for an extended period of time. A butterfly stretch is a common stretch used for the groin. Perform this from a seated position on the floor with your feet placed sole to sole, your knees bent and opening away from each other and your hands clasped around the tops of your feet. Position your elbows on the inside of your thighs and slowly pull your torso down towards your feet until you feel a stretch in your groin. Press lightly into the inside of your thighs with your elbows and reach your knees toward the floor. Hold the position for 20 to 30 seconds and slowly release.

When Do Kids Move to Size 5 Soccer Balls?

The standard ball sizes intended for youth soccer players are 3, 4 and 5. Using the proper size allows children to develop their skills with soccer balls of the correct proportion. If necessary, ask the staff of your child¡¯s soccer league or a coach which type of ball is best for your child. Typically, the correct ball size depends on your child¡¯s age.
Children 7 years old and younger should use size 3 soccer balls. Check the printed information on the soccer ball to find a ball¡¯s size. If you can¡¯t find the markings, a size 3 ball should measure 23 to 24 inches in circumference. Use a flexible measuring tape, such as the kind tailors use, to measure the ball.
Size 4 soccer balls are suitable for children from 8 to 12 years old. The circumference of a size 4 ball should be between 25 and 26 inches.
Players over 12 years old should use size 5 soccer balls, which measure 27 to 28 inches in circumference. Size 5 is also the standard size ball for adult and professional players. The International Federation of Association Football, or FIFA, performs tests to ensure the soccer balls it uses meet rigid specifications. Look for ¡°FIFA Inspected¡± or ¡°FIFA Approved¡± markings on the soccer ball. Balls that carry these designations have undergone rigorous testing for circumference, roundness, rebound, weight, water absorption, loss of pressure, and shape and size retention.
Children need to develop ball-handling skills, so using a ball of the correct size and weight allows them to practice their skills without undue difficulty. For example, using a ball that is too heavy and large will make dribbling practice difficult for young children. Also, children must practice with a soccer ball that is the same size as the ball they will use during organized games and team practices. Being familiar with the way the ball will react and bounce makes it easier for children to play well when it counts.

The Benjamin Franklin Quiz

Inventor, statesman, writer and notorious prankster Benjamin Franklin is often called “the first American” for his myriad contributions to life in the early United States. Can you ace our quiz on Ben?

Quiz: How does color affect you?

When it comes to painting your home, there’s more to picking a color than meets the eye. Your choices are often based on deep-seated psychological reactions to color that you may not even think about at first. Take this quiz to see how much you know about the effects of color on your mind!

Basketball Resistance Training

Basketball requires players to be agile, fast quick and — most important — explosive. Resistance training allows athletes to train for explosive power and build strength to improve speed. In contemporary basketball, athletes are bigger, faster and stronger, primarily due to year-round training both on the court and in the weight room. Building a structured workout plan incorporating resistance training with on-court practice and conditioning provides the best results.
Resistance training is a form of training that uses a form of resistance beyond a normal activity. Some of these methods include free weights, weight machines, resistance bands, rocks and even body weight. A resistance training program can be structured for many activities such as body building, general fitness, rehabilitation and, in this case, sports training. Resistance training is commonly misused as a term with powerlifting or body building, when in fact both are unique sports, and resistance training is just one method to train for both of those sports. Resistance training is safe method of training and is actually safer than playing the sport of basketball itself.
Two commonly confused words, strength and power, actually have very different definitions, especially in athletics. Strength is the ability to move an object, where power is how fast you are able to move that object. In basketball, you want to be able to snatch a rebound or dive after a loose ball and be the first one to get there. That is where power comes into play. If you are trying to box an opponent out or post him up, then that is where strength comes into play. Both are important to the game, but each position may require more of one than the other. A point guard does not need to develop the strength to box out a center, where the center doesn’t need the power to move as quickly.
Core lifts will build the foundation of your resistance training program. Olympic lifts include the clean and jerk, the snatch, and any other variation of the two lifts such as the high clean, high pulls or dumbbell snatches. Olympic lifts train both strength and power, and are exceptionally useful to basketball players because they train explosive power in the triple extension motion. Triple extension is termed for extension at the hip, knee, and ankle. This motion is used in jumping as well as the push off, or drive phase, in running. Unlike squats, Olympic lifts provide power in the triple extension motion, training neuromuscular and muscular components to fire faster and stronger, producing a greater response in force.
Other resistance exercises structured around the Olympic lifts fill out the rest of your resistance training program. These exercises are used to build muscle strength and power in areas that the core lifts where unable to train. They can also be used to train joint areas for stability to prevent future injuries. Resistance band or tube training works well to build your stabilizing muscles, and also increase to soft tissue within the joints of the shoulder and elbow to prevent a chronic overuse injury during the season. Other resistance exercises used for training basketball players include the bench press, squats, push press, shrugs, upright rows, curls, leg curls, pull-downs and skull crushers.
Plyometrics takes advantage of body-weight resistance to train the muscle. When a muscle becomes overloaded, it begins to stretch like a spring. When that muscle contracts, the spring is released, adding force to the contraction. This trains the muscle for both hypertrophy (growth) and the neuromuscular components use to activate the muscle. A jump-training device uses resistance bands attached at the hip, thigh, and arm to provide resistance. This motion trains similarly to Olympic lifts, but with less resistance, providing more power output. A weighted vest may be used in the same fashion. But it should be noted that all three of these training exercises induce large amounts of fatigue and are unstable on the leg joints, particularly the knee. These exercises should be at the beginning of a workout to reduce the risk of injury.

Should Men Do Zumba?

Zumba. Most guys have heard of it, but few know exactly what it is.
A quick rundown of what Zumba isn’t:
— The speediest Roomba model
— A brand of bath salts
— The Brazilian soccer team’s top striker
It is a dance fitness program, which is the simple way to say it.
More accurately, Zumba is the Huffington Post of cardio workouts. It unapologetically aggregates every other cardio dance workout in its path, consuming all.
A single Zumba class might include salsa, merengue, cumbia, reggaeton, Arabian rhythms, country, samba, cha-cha-cha, belly dance, bhangra, soca, martial arts, belly dance, hip-hop, world rhythms and, possibly, the ※Ickey Shuffle.§
Zumba was brought to the United States in 1999 by Alberto ※Beto§ Perez. Perez invented the workout as a 16-year-old aerobics instructor in his native Colombia when he forgot the music for a class and used an eclectic mixed tape instead.
His students loved it.
In 2001 he and his American business partners launched Zumba Fitness in the states. Today Zumba Fitness says it is the most popular branded fitness program in the world, and is being used in 125 countries by more than 12 million people every week.
While there*s been no outside study of the gender breakdown of those classes, I*m willing to bet about 95 percent of them are female.
The women I talked to while reporting this article said that they never or rarely see men in their Zumba classes.
A Zumba Fitness spokesperson said the official numbers are 80 percent women and 20 percent men, but at least one Los Angeles studio owner agreed with my 95/5 assessment based on attendance there.
The reasons for this are not just specific to Zumba 每 men in general prefer to work out alone, while women make up the majority of most cardio classes.
But Zumba, as opposed to dance classes like hip-hop and breakdancing, which at least get a smattering of dudes, seems especially unpopular with men.
The question is: Why? Why don*t men Zumba? I set out to find the answer.
As it turns out, there are a few reasons. And one of them involves mustard stains.
I enrolled at Your Neighborhood Studio in Culver City, where the rooms have wood floors, ballet barres and floor-to-ceiling mirrors that provide ample opportunity to see every mistake you make during each routine.
The instructor began each song by silently introducing a series of dance steps no American man has ever performed outside of an NFL touchdown celebration.
The typical routine went like this: Two-steps-left, kick-pivot, two-steps-right, kick-pivot.
We*d repeat those steps a few times. I*d get better at the moves. Got it. Awesome.
But then 每wait, what?每 the instructor would introduce a whole new sequence.
Some women, such as my wife, magically got the dance steps as they happened.
Meanwhile, I*m tripping over my feet and saying to myself (or possibly out loud, I can*t quite remember), ※What was wrong with the last sequence? I was NAILING IT! Now it*s crossover-right-spin, crossover-left- spin?
Why must we always change? Why is no sequence ever good enough? Why can*t we just do the same two steps for the next 45 minutes? Crossover-right-spin, crossover-left- spin is bull crap! Faaaahhhhh!!!!§
In Zumba you do 10 to 12 songs in an average class, so I basically just became more unhinged with each new track.
Despite my pining, pleading, and begging for the return of two-steps-left, kick-pivot, two-steps-right, kick-pivot, it never came back. Instead we always moved on to some new walk-like-an-Egyptian-while-lunging crap, which everyone else seemed to love and be totally capable of doing.
So, that*s the first main thing I noticed, which I think cuts to the heart of why many men avoid Zumba.
I had no idea what I was doing most of the time, knew I looked like an idiot, and every new sequence made me want to punt the MP3 player.
Why? Zumba took me out of my element and put me face-to-face with my insecurities.
Because of that giant mirror, I got to see every mistake I made.
There I was, a step behind, turning the wrong way, or just sort of hopping up and down in place, looking confused. (The instructors don*t teach this step, but it*s pretty much the first move you learn and the only one you*ll do during every song. It*s crucial.) And for men, that sucks. As a guy, you want to be the best in the room 每 especially if that room is full of fit women. When you*re not, it*s humbling.
But here is the saddest part of all, and it didn*t occur to me until around my third class: My shame, embarrassment and towering loathing for my inability to move my body in sync with the music and the instructor, was all coming from within.
Not once did a teacher or classmate say anything about how poorly I danced. No one made a single critical, pitying or mocking glance. No one seemed to even notice my struggles.
Yet I felt stupid.
As it turns out, I was suffering from what psychologists call ※The Spotlight Effect.§
The Spotlight Effect is the tendency to overestimate the extent to which your actions and appearance are noted by others. Most people do this, especially teenagers who walk around high school while looking down at the floor.
It is natural to think everyone is looking at you all the time, like when you*re sure everyone at the party will notice the mustard stain on your jeans. But as researchers at Cornell concluded in a 2000 paper in the ※Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,§ it*s more likely that no one is looking at you.
No one is obsessing about that yellow glob but you.
My female classmates ranged in age from 20s to 60s. Their skill level was all over the place. But there was no judging.
At first, I felt almost crippled with fear over what these people 每 these nice people who I didn*t know, and probably would never see again 每 would think of me.
Even though science tells me that they likely didn*t even notice.
When I asked Zumba creator ※Beto§ Perez how to increase male interest in Zumba, he said, ※Men just need to get over their insecurities.§
That*s easier said than done.
My embarrassment and fear were eventually overridden by an even more intense sensation: Exhaustion.
In Zumba, the movement is almost non-stop.
There are five-second breaks between songs, enough time for a quick towel or a drink of water, but no real rest. The sweat pours quickly and heavily because you*re using every muscle in your body.
Perez says that Zumba doesn*t feel like a workout, and he*s right. Zumba feels like a wedding reception where you never leave the dance floor and every song is a line dance choreographed by an ADD-addled bridesmaid.
It took two classes, but I eventually began to lose my inhibitions. I began, to borrow a phrase, to dance like nobody was watching.
I stepped, shimmied and shook. I spun and didn*t knock anyone over. I was actually having fun.
And I discovered what women worldwide already knew: Zumba is a good workout.
You burn about the same number of calories you would on a treadmill, but there are more challenges and a greater variety of muscle movements. As you get better at the moves, you experience more enjoyment from the class 每 and a sense of achievement.
Zumba*s biggest upside: Time flies.
A lot of working out is monotonous, and when you*re bored, time creeps by slowly.
With Zumba, you*re learning dance steps, memorizing them, putting them into combinations, paying attention to the instructor, keeping your distance from the people around you and listening to the music for cues. The time passes quickly as you focus your mind and body on performing the moves 每 and not looking like Don Knotts while you do.
It is now months later, and I still pop into the occasional Zumba class.
Chesapeake, Va., YMCA Zumba instructor Alice Warchol said the classes pass quickly even for the most experienced students.
I am not what anyone would call experienced yet, but I agree.
※The more that you know a routine the easier it is to work out,§ she said. ※You completely lose yourself in it.§
A total body workout that is challenging, helps you become a better dancer, makes time pass quickly, and puts you in a room with 20 women?
Perhaps the real question is why isn*t EVERY guy doing Zumba?
So ignore the mustard stain.

Muscle Pain & Bruising After Workouts

Muscle soreness and bruising are extremely common side effects of exercise. While both conditions can cause discomfort, they are not usually serious and tend to heal themselves without the need for treatment. However, there are certain things you can do to relieve the symptoms and prevent soreness and bruising from occurring in the first place.
This condition is also called delayed-onset muscle soreness, or DOMS. It usually arises 24 to 48 hours after a workout and can range from mild to very painful. The most common cause of DOMS is overworking your muscles, according to the Sports Fitness Advisor website. It¡¯s not clear why this causes soreness, but placing pressure on your muscles while they are extended — for example, when running downhill — is considered to be a risk factor. Temporary damage to your muscle cells is another possible cause of DOMS. When you exercise, the working muscles sustain tiny tears, which your body repairs by pumping extra blood into the affected muscles, says trainer and nutrition expert Damien Mase on the Muscle and Strength website. This eventually results in new tissue growth and bigger muscles, but in the short term these tears and the healing process may cause pain.
Regardless of the cause, DOMS usually disappears without treatment after a few days. But applying ice to the affected area can reduce swelling and, therefore, help ease pain and speed up the healing process. For the first three days after the muscle injury occurs, Medical News Today recommends applying ice for 20 minutes every four to six hours. After three days, follow the same application process, but change to heat therapy, using a hot-water bottle or warm shower to relax your stressed muscles.
According to the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, muscle bruising — also known as contusions — is one of the most common injuries in athletes who play contact sports. The bruises usually occur due to a direct blow, such as a tackle or fall, which damages the muscle fibers and causes bleeding within the muscle. The most obvious symptom is pain and tenderness around the injured muscle, and the skin may turn a bluish color. You may also experience swelling around the affected area and reduced mobility. Most muscle bruises heal without treatment, but in some cases they can be serious and result in a torn muscle or fractured bone. If your symptoms persist, see your doctor for a full diagnosis.
For the first 24 to 48 hours after the injury, follow the RICE (rest, ice, compression and elevation) treatment method to reduce swelling and control intra-muscular bleeding, recommends the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. Anti-inflammatory and pain-relieving medications may also help. During this period, keep the injured muscle in a gentle stretch position to prevent it from becoming stiff. After a few days, you can usually start using heat therapy and gradually return to normal activity. However, if your injury is serious, it may be several weeks before you can start exercising at your pre-injury intensity. In this case, your doctor will advise you on the best rehabilitation process for your condition.