Pediatric Tartar on Teeth

Childhood is the time to set lifelong patterns, and dental hygiene is one of the most important habits to teach your child. Poor or incomplete oral hygiene can lead to gum disease and eventually tooth loss. Even though your child¡¯s baby teeth are temporary, these young teeth require all the care of adult teeth¨Cand they are susceptible to the same maladies that adults face, including buildup of plaque and, consequently, tartar.
Tartar, also called calculus, is a hard mineral substance that binds to the teeth. Tartar collects on tooth surfaces, including between teeth, as well as at or beneath the gum line. Although tartar can develop at all ages, it becomes more common as children age. Older children are more susceptible to tartar than younger children, according to the American Dental Hygienists¡¯ Association. Adolescents aged 13 to 18 years have a prevalence rate of 74 percent, and that rate increases to 90 percent for all adults older than 18 years.
Tartar begins as plaque, a sticky substance made up of bacteria, food debris and other matter that coats teeth. When not properly removed by brushing and flossing, plaque mixes with minerals naturally found in saliva and hardens to form a cement-like shell. As tartar builds on the tooth surface, it creates more surface area to which plaque may cling, aggravating the problem. Some people never develop tartar, notes Dr. Mark Mutschler, D.D.S, M.S., whereas others experience excessive tartar buildup.
Tartar can only be removed by a dental professional. Brushing and flossing cannot remove tartar that is already on the teeth, says Mutschler, but it can help remove plaque and prevent additional tartar from accumulating. Dentists or dental hygienists remove tartar in a process called scaling. Scaling is performed by chipping away at the tartar with specially designed steel tools, explains Mutschler. In addition to scraping the tooth surface, your child¡¯s dentist may also have to probe beneath her gum line to ensure all traces of tartar are removed.
Tartar buildup can be unsightly. Tartar is porous and can absorb stains that give teeth a yellowish hue. A buildup of tartar can narrow the spaces between teeth, making flossing difficult and further worsening the problem. When tartar is not removed, it can lead to gum disease and eventually tooth loss. Oddly, if your child has a tartar problem, he is unlikely to have numerous cavities. The minerals in saliva that encourage tartar formation also help strengthen enamel and neutralize the acids that cause cavities. Make sure your child sees a dental professional regularly for cleanings and checkups.

What Is the Best Offense & Defense to Run in High School Football?

Despite the physicality ingrained in the sport, football is a popular activity for children of a wide range of ages. Children as young as 5 and as old as 17 embrace the sport with gusto and enthusiasm. However, the diverse span of ages requires different styles of play to suit the abilities of each age group. For example, Bantum level football features almost no forward passing — nearly all offensive plays are runs and draws. At the high school level, the offensive and defensive systems are more elaborate, but certain limitations persist because of the wide variability of player attributes.
Even though high school players are all in the same basic age group — 15 to 18 — that group spans a range of physiological differences. Adolescents in this age group develop and mature at varying rates, creating a huge disparity between players of the same age. In many ways, football is a sport that requires the exploitation of matchups for success; the huge variability makes game-planning and installing schemes difficult, because the results are more prone to unpredictability.
Obviously, the goal of a high school football team is to consistently win, execute plays and push toward the playoffs. However, especially at the high school level, an often unspoken goal of football is the development of certain interpersonal and leadership skills that come with working as a team, sacrificing individual interests for a larger community goal and to take responsibility for one¡¯s own mistakes in a direct way. The best high school offensive and defensive systems will be the ones that best encourage team chemistry and cohesiveness.
At the high school level, the best offense will usually be the one that maintains control of the ball for more of the game than the opponent. Systems that focus on the run, such as the Wishbone, the Power-I, the Single Wing and the Read-Option, are common at the high school level. However, spread offenses are becoming more popular and may suit certain teams. Despite the common misconception, a spread attack isn¡¯t really a vertical passing system. The spread attack depends on effective blocking by the offensive line to push the defense out laterally, clearing space for runs up the middle, out to the side, for screens or for vertical passing off of play-action passing. Without quick, physically imposing offensive linemen, the spread option may not be ideal for the high school level.
High school defensive systems depend greatly on the type of talent on the roster, and the type of offenses that the team will face in its league. Usually, to counter ground-control running attacks, a 4-4-3 defense is ideal, because it places four defensive linemen on the line of scrimmage, with four defensive players at the second level to contain power runs or short passes. If the threat of deep, vertical passing isn¡¯t likely from a lot of teams in the league, the defensive secondary usually doesn¡¯t need more than three players to contain it.

Pros and Cons of Day Care Centers

If you have recently added to your family, or are planning to, the issue of child care is probably very much on your mind. The decision of whether to stay home with your children, send them to day care, or hire a nanny or other in-home child care professional is a personal one. If you are considering day care, you should take a few items into account.
According to the Family and Childcare Trust, one of the best things about having your children in day care is the socialization she will get. In day cares, children are grouped with others similar in age and will play with kids from different backgrounds and upbringings and learn to compromise and share and work with a variety of kids.
Many day care centers are much more than just babysitting; they offer structure and learning for young children. Children play games, hear stories, work on art projects and lay down the foundation of early learning that will benefit them for their entire lives. Many day cares work on teaching kids the alphabet, counting, the days of the week and different kinds of weather, among other things.
If you definitely need some form of child care, you may find day care centers a more cost-effective choice than hiring a nanny or a full-time babysitter who is only watching your children. In addition, some day cares offer a sliding scale for fees or have scholarship programs for kids who come from lower-income families.
Day care centers can have downsides, too. For one thing, your child may pick up bad habits he otherwise would not have been exposed to — at least not yet. If your child is around other children in day care who curse, spit or bite, your little one may get the idea that these are good ways to get attention.
Kids who stay home with you or a nanny will face less exposure to illnesses. In day care, your child will encounter a large number of small, germy people sharing a small space and breathing all over each other, which increases the chances of them passing illnesses back and forth to each other. In addition, if your child gets sick from day care frequently and you have to take off work to stay home with her, this can end up costing you a good deal of money.

What Are the Functions of Frontal Lobe of Brain?

The cerebrum, which is the largest part of the brain, is divided into four areas, or lobes, each of which houses different functions. The cerebrum is also divided into two hemispheres: the right, which helps you think creatively and the left, which helps you think logically. Hence, you have a right-sided frontal lobe and a leftt-sided frontal lobe. Your personality lives in the frontal lobes, where emotions, problem solving, reasoning, planning and other functions are managed. The frontal lobes are linked to sensory and memory centers throughout the brain. Their primary job is to allow us to think things through and determine how to use information that is located elsewhere in the brain.
Higher-level thinking is supported by the frontal lobes. Activity in these lobes allows us to reason, make judgments, make plans for the near and far future, make choices, take action, solve problems and generally control our living environment. Without fully functioning frontal lobes, you may have intelligence, but you wouldn¡¯t be able to put it to use.
The frontal lobes or, more specifically, the prefrontal cortex located within the frontal lobes, possess the ability to access information and memories we accumulate that remind us how to communicate and interact appropriately in social or public situations. The frontal lobes are responsible for empathetic behavior, allowing us to understand the thinking and experiences of others. This understanding helps us take cues as to how to behave or respond in different types of social situations, such as the correct response to a job interview question, or understand the punch line of a joke. Damage to some areas of the frontal lobe can also affect sexual interest and activity.
Although movement and muscle coordination are centered in another part of the brain called the cerebellum, the frontal lobes control your voluntary muscles. These are the muscles you use to walk, run, dance, throw a football or make an other conscious movement. Spatial orientation, or the ability to determine the position of your body in space, is also a function of the frontal lobes.

At What Age Can a Child Work Out With Weights?

If you¡¯ve ever heard that weightlifting isn¡¯t safe for kids under 12 because it stunts their growth, you¡¯re not alone. This myth persists despite lacking any truth, according to the American Council on Exercise. Beyond improving muscle strength, increasing bone density and lowering cholesterol, working out with weights has an often overlooked benefit — it gives overweight children who may struggle with other sports a chance to excel in an area of physical fitness. At the appropriate age, using weights is a great way for children to strength train.
Generally, a child can begin to work out with weights at the same time she is ready for organized sports. This means, she must be able to follow directions, understand proper form and adhere to safety procedures, including always warming up before and cooling down after. For most kids, this readiness occurs around 7 or 8 years old. The American Academy of Pediatrics Council on Sports Medicine and Fitness warns against weight training before this time because the balance and body control skills are not yet fully developed.
No matter his age, a child should start with light weights and focus on repetitions. However, more than age, the beginning weight will depend on the child¡¯s strength ability. The repetition rule is the same for all children — if a child can¡¯t do eight reps with the weight, it’s too heavy. After a child successfully performs 15 reps, he can progress to a weight 10 percent heavier.
A young child will not develop bigger muscles from working out with weights because the hormones responsible for increasing muscle size are not yet present. Using weights at this age helps a child develop muscle strength, felt through firmer muscles. Once the hormones are present during puberty, weightlifting helps the muscles grow in size. Although puberty begins sooner for some, and later for others, most girls begin puberty at 11 and mature at 14. Most boys begin at 12 and mature at 15 or 16.
Supervision and instruction from a qualified strength-training coach is imperative. Most injuries are the result of unsafe behavior on home equipment used without supervision, reports the American Academy of Pediatrics. The AAP adds that in settings with supervision and proper technique, weightlifting injury rates are lower than injury rates from other sports or from recess at school. Olympic lifts, power lifts and single repetition maximum effort are not safe for a child of any age.

Causes of Swelling in Legs, Hands & Feet

Tissues in the body may trap excessive fluid and cause swelling, which is referred to as edema. Individuals commonly notice this swelling in the hands, feet, ankles and legs, according to MayoClinic.com. Small amounts of swelling are normal and usually resolve spontaneously. A variety of medical conditions may cause edema; identifying and treating the underlying condition is essential to controlling it.
Lupus is an autoimmune condition that causes chronic inflammatory response in areas of the body. Common symptoms of lupus include fatigue, swollen joints, a butterfly-shaped rash on the face and edema in the hands, legs and feet, according to the Lupus Foundation of America website.
Pregnant women, women experiencing premenstrual symptoms and women taking supplemental estrogen may experience swelling in the hands, feet and legs. Eating salty foods, as well as remaining in one position for long periods of time, may increase the swelling.
Certain medications may cause swelling in the extremities as a side effect of the drug. Calcium channel blockers used to treat conditions, such as high blood pressure and migraines, may cause edema because the medication works to block calcium from entering cells in the blood vessels and in the heart. This blockage of calcium causes the blood vessels to relax and dilate. The dilated blood vessels allow excessive fluid to pool in the extremities. Additional medications that may cause swelling include medications used to treat high blood pressure, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and thiazolidinediones, which treats diabetes, according to MayoClinic.com.
Functions of the kidneys and liver include removing waste products from the body. If these organs do not function correctly because of damage, the body may retain excessive amounts of fluid, increasing the risk of developing edema in the hands, legs and feet.
An injury, such as a sprain to the knee, ankle or wrist or a broken bone in the hand, foot or leg, may cause swelling to occur in the area. First aid treatments, such as ice, may help reduce the swelling.
A deep vein thrombosis is a blood clot in one of the deep veins in the body. They most often occur in the legs, but may also occur in the arms. Symptoms of a deep vein thrombosis include pain in the affected extremity and swelling in the area.

What Do You Have to Wear in Football?

Football is a fast-paced sport that is filled with incredible runs, passes and catches, as well as violent hits and dangerous tackles. Every play in a football game ends with a tackle and, in some cases, it takes a group of players to bring down a runner or a receiver. Football players of all ages wear a variety of football equipment which helps protect their bodies and reduces the risk of injuries during gameplay.
Every football player wears a uniform that consists of a team jersey and pants. The uniform makes it easier for fans, officials, teammates and coaches to identify the players. Most uniform jerseys have the team name, the team logo, the player’s number and the player’s name on the shirt. Football pants can be worn over pads, or they can have pads built into them.
The helmet is the most important part of a football player’s uniform. It protects the player’s head from injuries such as concussions. Football helmets have a hard plastic outer shell and are heavily padded on the inside. The helmet must be snug and have a chin strap that fits well and meets the standards established by the National Operating Committee on Standards for Athletic Equipment. Every football helmet needs to have a face mask. The face mask is a cage-like mask that protects the player’s face from injury.
All football players need to wear shoulder pads when they are playing the game. Shoulder pads absorb most of the impact when players are hit. They have a hard, adjustable plastic shell that is heavily padded underneath. The pads protect the shoulders, collarbones, chest and back. The neck roll is a pad that snaps onto the back of a player’s jersey. Neck rolls help lessen the impact of a head-on collision and reduce the chance of a severe neck injury.
Hip and tailbone pads, thigh pads, knee pads and shock pads cover vulnerable areas of players’ bodies which helps protect them from impact and injury. These pads can be snapped into the lining of the uniform or worn under the shoulder pads. All male football players are required to wear an athletic supporter with a cup to protect their genital area from injury. Players should wear custom-fitted mouth guards to protect their teeth and reduce the risk of a broken jaw or a concussion.
Football shoes have cleats on the bottoms of them that help players run and cut as they are playing the game. The shoe should be comfortable and well-fitting, and should offer the player support in the foot and ankle. Wearing the wrong shoe can cause injuries to the ankle and knee. The type of turf that players are going to be running on determines what type of cleat is best. Although gloves aren’t necessary, may wide receivers choose to wear them because they improve their grip. Offensive and defensive linemen wear thickly padded gloves to protect their hands from injury as they perform their lineman duties.

Winstrol Effects on Muscles

Winstrol is available as either an injection or an oral tablet. It is the brand name for stanozolol. Winstrol has a therapeutic use for angioedema, a condition that causes swelling in the throat, or on the face, extremities or genitals. The swelling is similar to hives, but is located under the skin, rather than on the surface of the skin. Aside from this use for Winstrol, some athletes and competitive body builders use it for its muscle building and endurance boosting benefits also use it. It is illegal to possess or use anabolic steroids without a valid prescription.
There are many different types of anabolic steroids on the market. While all have potential harmful side effects, Winstrol has many features that make it more attractive than other types. Winstrol helps create quality muscle growth. Some anabolic steroids help build muscle size without creating an increase in strength. Combined with a serious workout, Winstrol creates strong muscles.
Many anabolic steroids encourage water retention. Winstrol doesn’t cause water retention, which makes it a popular choice for many body builders as they get close to a show. Winstrol allows the user to continue to build muscle without retaining fluid that will get in the way of the hard, veiny, cut look that is an important part of a body builder’s physique.
Winstrol improves the body’s ability to produce red blood cells. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, including to the muscles. More red blood cells make it possible for the muscles to work harder, longer and recover quicker because of the added oxygen moving into them. This is the reason that some track and field, cycling and other performance athletes may choose to take Winstrol, a performance-enhancing substance.
Some body builders and endurance athletes use Winstrol because it provides strength and endurance without creating bulk. Endurance athletes do not want to carry around any more weight than necessary, so they avoid bulky muscles at all times. Body builders lift weights to increase their muscle size, but want visible definition between muscle groups. Some anabolic steroids create such bulk that, while the overall size of the muscles is large, the definition of each muscle group is not noticeable.

How Soon to See Results When Taking Creatine

Relatively cheap and safe, creatine helps to replenish ATP — the main energy source for cells — during intense exercise. Unlike with many supplements, you do not experience the effects of creatine instantaneously. Your cells store creatine for future use, keeping your muscles saturated for when you need it the most. However, other factors can influence how quickly creatine works.
While not required, you may decide to begin creatine supplementation with what is commonly known as a ¡°loading phase.¡± As described in 2007 research in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, a loading phase is a period of additional creatine ingestion aimed at saturating your muscles as quickly as possible. By taking 20 grams of creatine daily for the first week, subjects in the study increased their total creatine concentrations by 10 to 40 percent in six days versus 28 days for those that only used 3 grams per day. Either option proves effective in the long run, but if you want to see results from creatine quickly, a loading phase may be the right choice for you.
Whether you choose to load creatine or not, you will need to decide on your maintenance dose. This dose is the amount of creatine you take daily after loading; in the absence of a loading phase, it is how much creatine you take from the beginning. Many products recommend 5 grams daily taken at your convenience to influence strength gains. If you are not very active, daily doses as low as 2 grams may still offer benefits, especially for cognition. A 2012 study in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition suggested that athletes aim for 0.1 gram of creatine per kilogram of body weight to support muscular adaptations. If you follow an intense resistance-training program, inadequate creatine supplementation can lead to depleted creatine stores — and stalled progress. Your maintenance dose remains an integral factor in how quickly — and how consistently — you see results from creatine.
Creatine¡¯s relationship with ATP influences maximal workload. Consequently, you will notice quicker and better benefits while supplementing with creatine if you participate in certain training activities. Creatine enhances power output during intense exercises — meaning it can help you grind out another repetition or two during heavy back squats. Creatine does not play a similar role in aiding endurance, so long-distance runners will not experience the same improvements. Conclusions drawn from a 2000 study by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicated you will notice more physical adaptations from creatine use when you engage in high-intensity activities such as weightlifting, sprinting, football or hockey, and the speed of these changes is positively correlated with how often you participate.
Diet plays an important role during exercise as well as during the recovery process. If you do not fuel your workouts with adequate carbohydrates — around 1 gram for every kilogram of body weight — you will not reach the intensity necessary to really take advantage of creatine supplementation. And if you fail to replenish your body with protein, your muscles will be unable to recover even with creatine saturation. Strength gains occur mostly during the recovery stage, when your muscles use available protein to repair damaged tissues. A simple post-workout protein shake can make a huge difference — the average commercial protein powder contains around 20 to 25 grams of protein per serving. By paying attention to your dietary needs, you provide creatine with the tools it needs to enhance adaptation. Otherwise, you risk slowing this process down — or losing the benefits of creatine completely.

How Does Air Pressure Affect the Bounce of a Soccer Ball?

A predictable bounce makes soccer more enjoyable at the amateur level. And it¡¯s a necessity at a high-stakes professional game, where a gifted athlete such as Brazilian star Marta needs to work with a ball that will bounce correctly in response to an artful touch of the foot. Air pressure is one of the variables that affects the soccer ball¡¯s bounce, as anyone who has ever played any ball sport grasps intuitively.
FIFA¡¯s Laws of the Game contain a passage in Law 2, The Ball, requiring that the ball be spherical and inflated to a pressure equal to 0.6 to 1.1 atmosphere, the equivalent of 8.5 to 15.6 psi at sea level. English theoretical physicist and soccer player John Wesson writes in ¡°The Science of Soccer¡± that this rule actually means to call for a pressure difference between the inside and the outside of the ball. The outside of the ball is 1.0 atmosphere, he explains, and the inside of the ball is this figure plus the FIFA requirement, namely 1.6 to 2.1 atmosphere. He points out that anything less than 1.0 atmosphere would make the ball collapse, and a pressure of 1.1 atmosphere would result in a floppy, barely inflated ball.
The bounce of the soccer ball ¡°seems so natural that the need for an explanation might not seem apparent,¡± Wesson writes. To describe the obvious, he notes that when a solid ball bounces, such as a golf ball, the elasticity of the ball¡¯s material allows it to bounce. A hollow ball with a casing, such as a soccer ball, has almost no elasticity, so a dropped deflated ball lies flat on the ground. Deflating a soccer ball from the recommended maximum can actually be helpful during practice, for example, if you want to work on juggling the ball and want it to bounce less off your practice foot, notes Alan Hargreaves in “Skills and Strategies for Coaching Soccer.”
A pressurized soccer ball obtains its elasticity and bounce from the air molecules trapped in its casing at a greater volume than in the outside atmosphere. The molecules move in random directions at high speed, colliding with each other and the inside of the ball casing to create pressure and a stiff surface. Air pressure is one of three factors affecting the duration of the bounce, the others being its size and weight. As FIFA standardizes the size and weight of the game ball at 27 to 28 inches and 14 to 16 oz., pressure provides the most likely variable to affect a bounce.
Before the ball contacts the ground, air pressure is uniform throughout the ball, Wesson writes. But when the ball bounces on the ground, it deforms and increases the air pressure around the deformed area and rapidly throughout the ball¡¯s interior. The uniform pressure during the bounce increases because the contact of the bottom of the ball with the ground reduces the ball¡¯s volume. A ball reaching the ground at 20 mph deflects about 1 inch, and pressure rises by about 5 percent, he notes.